Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 106
PubMed Score 405.24
PubTator Score 447.81

Knowledge Summary


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 CSPA Cell Line (2)

Gene RIF (53)

26728454 Data suggest that Mg2+ or Mn2+ (but not Ca2+) induce a conformational change in inter-alpha-inhibitor (ITIH1 and ITIH2) and a bikunin/chondroitin sulfate-dependent increase in thermodynamic stability; bikunin binds adjacent to the two heavy chains.
26681130 Prophylactic UTI maintains the endothelial barrier function, increases VE-cadherin expression, and inhibits the phosphorylation of VE-cadherin at Tyr658 under inflammatory conditions
26497278 Data indicate that two heme groups can be bound simultaneously at separate sites in the antioxidant alpha1-microglobulin.
25561734 Heavy chain transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 to the bikunin proteoglycan.
25555815 results indicate a reduced UTI level in CSF of MS and NMO patients. The levels were associated with the severity of the two demyelinating diseases during relapse
25370597 Proximal tubular dysfunction, indicated by urine alpha1-microglobulin, was independently associated with kidney function decline in HIV-infected and uninfected women and mortality risk among HIV-infected women.
24980765 Decreased bikunin mRNA level in renal cells might be associated with poor prognosis of renal carcinoma.
24698819 placental alpha microglobulin-1 is a sensitive and specific test to assess rupture of membranes in patients with an equivocal diagnosis based on simple tests
24211404 Label-free quantitative comparison of DN urinary exosomes vs control group and SRM further validation, resulted in the discovery of a panel of three proteins (AMBP, MLL3 and VDAC1) which changes in DN.
24135868 The high level of serum AMBP could predict the poor response of the AGC patients.
24012674 Determined is the first structure of human alpha-1-microglobulin with heavy electron density of the chromophore.
23919851 In pre-term pregnant women with intact membranes, placental alpha-microglobulin-1 in cervicovaginal fluid test rates are more positive in cases of uterine contraction.
23841057 our findings suggest that urine bikunin level, as well as proteinuria, could represent a useful parameter for monitoring renal function in those patients that do not present any symptoms of renal insufficiency.
23801333 Sulfation of the bikunin chondroitin sulfate chain determines heavy chain.hyaluronan complex formation
23642167 The antioxidative protection of cells and collagen by A1M is totally dependent on its C34 amino acid residue.
23414180 High urine alpha-1-microglobulin is associated with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy plus inflammation.
23324582 High urine alpha-1-microglobulin is associated with ischemic acute tubular necrosis than other causes of acute kidney injury.
22684072 crystal of alpha1-microglobulin belonged to space group P4(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 36.45, c = 112.68 A
22595828 Report prognostic value of urinary alpha 1-macroglobulin in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.
22096585 The results suggest that A1M may have a physiological role in protection of skin cells and matrix against oxidative damage following bleeding.
21332340 urinary marker for the differential diagnosis of Balkan endemic nephropathy
21067798 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20954860 the cell-protective effects of alpha(1)-microglobulin during alpha-particle irradiation
20628086 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20602574 These findings suggest that there was no significant association in genotype distribution of Init-2 polymorphism of the AMBP gene between patients with kidney stones and healthy controls.
20602574 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20602574 The promoter of AMBP gene had polymorphisms at positions -218 and -189 nt giving three different genotypes with no association between these observed genotypes and kidney stone-forming phenotypes.
19914646 significant relationship was established between the low level and absence of bikunin, and pro-u-PA in urine samples from patients with bladder tumors; identified bikunin loss in urine as a potential bladder carcinoma marker
19913121 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19879940 increased protein levels in preeclamptic women
19636634 Overexpression of Urinary trypsin inhibitor is associated with recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma.
18649735 Overexpression of bikunin reduced the gene expression of matriptase, which attenuated in vitro cell invasion in prostate cancer.
18448433 The transfer of heavy chains from bikunin proteins to hyaluronan requires both TSG-6 and HC2.
18226914 In the present study, structural motifs regulating bikunin's anti-inflammatory function are delineated. Binding of bikunin to neutrophils is critically important for its anti-inflammatory capacity.
18046670 in multiple myeloma patients without renal failure, elevated Alpha-1-microglobulin excretion might be an early marker of renal tubular involvement
17998887 urinary trypsin inhibitor is insufficiently produced for neutrophil elastase release after cardiac arrest
17766242 AMBP has radical scavenging activity.
17633530 The ability of alpha-1-microglobulin to restore the initial conformation characteristic for the native protein and the internal dynamics after the unfolding of the globule by 10 M urea and 6 M guanidine hydrochloride has been ascertained.
17584166 small angle X-ray scanning study of the monomer and dimer forms of alpha1-microglobulin; monomer is characterised by a radius of gyration R(G)= 2.20 nm and D(max)=6.3 nm and the dimer by R(G)=2.99 nm and D(max)=9.5 nm
17320766 alpha(1)-microglobulin participates in the defense against oxidation by hemoglobin, heme, and reactive oxygen species
17146627 Bikunin was found to localize on the cell membrane, while tryptase was in the secretary granules of the mast cells from psoriatic lesions.
17115277 Free uristatin and bikunin pass readily into urine and are primarily bound to heavy chains that constitute the proinhibitor form in plasma.
17087727 Identification of the protein bikunin as an endogenous, competitive inhibitor of a dynorphin-converting enzyme in human cerebrospinal fluid.
16916777 The urinary excretion of alpha1-microglobulin and albumin was significantly elevated in nine patients, and the urinary excretion of the two proteins correlated significantly.
16407257 the ORF3 protein exploits the endosomal sorting machinery to enhance the secretion of an immunosuppressant molecule (alpha1 microglobulin) from cultured hepatocytes
16140784 the second processed protein from AMBP, bikunin, strongly interacted with the full-length hepatitis E virus ORF3 protein
15653696 The TSG-6 and inter-alpha-inhibitor interaction promotes a transesterification cleaving the protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein (PGP) cross-link.
15498571 Bikunin neither decreased expression of TGF-beta receptors (TbetaRI and TbetaRII) in cancer cells nor altered the specific binding of 125I TGF-beta1 to the cells.
15452109 alpha-1-microglobulin is covalently bound to kynurenine-derived chromophores
15037615 Data show that alpha(1) -microglobulin/bikunin precursor specifically interacts with the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus and has a direct role in enhancing alpha(1)microglobulin export from the hepatocyte.
14597629 bikunin has a role in downregulating PI3 kinase and suppressing tumor invasiveness and metastasis in ovaran cancer cells
11877257 Processing of the lipocalin alpha(1)-microglobulin by hemoglobin induces heme-binding and heme-degradation properties.
11807786 Transfection into H460M Human large cell lung carcinoma line decreased tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice

AA Sequence

SN                                                                        351 - 352

Text Mined References (112)

PMID Year Title
26728454 2016 The Compact and Biologically Relevant Structure of Inter-?-inhibitor Is Maintained by the Chondroitin Sulfate Chain and Divalent Cations.
26681130 2016 Urinary trypsin inhibitor attenuates LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction by upregulation of vascular endothelial-cadherin expression.
26497278 2016 Structural and biochemical characterization of two heme binding sites on ?1-microglobulin using site directed mutagenesis and molecular simulation.
26202000 2015 High-level secretion of human bikunin from recombinant Pichia pastoris.
25561734 2015 Heavy chain transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 to the bikunin proteoglycan.
25555815 2015 Urinary trypsin inhibitor levels are reduced in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica patients during relapse.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25370597 2015 Association of urine ?1-microglobulin with kidney function decline and mortality in HIV-infected women.
24980765 2014 Reduced gene expression of bikunin as a prognostic marker for renal cell carcinoma.
24698819 2014 Comparison of placental alpha microglobulin-1 in vaginal fluid with intra-amniotic injection of indigo carmine for the diagnosis of rupture of membranes.
24275569 2014 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
24211404 2014 Diabetic nephropathy induces changes in the proteome of human urinary exosomes as revealed by label-free comparative analysis.
24135868 2013 High level of serum AMBP is associated with poor response to paclitaxel-capecitabine chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer patients.
24012674 2013 The crystal structure of human protein ?1M reveals a chromophore-binding site and two putative protein-protein interfaces.
23919851 2013 A comparative study of positive rate of placental ?-microglobulin-1 test in pre-term pregnant women with and without uterine contraction.
23841057 2013 Urine bikunin as a marker of renal impairment in Fabry's disease.
23801333 2013 Sulfation of the bikunin chondroitin sulfate chain determines heavy chain·hyaluronan complex formation.
23642167 2013 The cysteine 34 residue of A1M/?1-microglobulin is essential for protection of irradiated cell cultures and reduction of carbonyl groups.
23533145 2013 In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine.
23414180 2013 Urine high and low molecular weight proteins one-year post-kidney transplant: relationship to histology and graft survival.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23324582 2013 Urinary biomarkers for the prediction of reversibility in acute-on-chronic renal failure.
22684072 2012 Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of human ?1-microglobulin.
22595828 2012 Prognostic value of risk score and urinary markers in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.
22516433 2012 Proteomic analysis of microvesicles from plasma of healthy donors reveals high individual variability.
22171320 2012 Human urinary glycoproteomics; attachment site specific analysis of N- and O-linked glycosylations by CID and ECD.
22096585 2011 Up-regulation of A1M/?1-microglobulin in skin by heme and reactive oxygen species gives protection from oxidative damage.
21332340 2011 Beta2-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin as markers of Balkan endemic nephropathy, a worldwide disease.
21067798 2011 Prothrombin haplotype associated with kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients.
20954860 2010 Bystander cell death and stress response is inhibited by the radical scavenger ?(1)-microglobulin in irradiated cell cultures.
20628086 2010 Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study.
20602574 2010 Bikunin and ?1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) gene mutational screening in patients with kidney stones: a case-control study.
19914646 2010 Bikunin loss in urine as useful marker for bladder carcinoma.
19913121 2009 Gene-centric association signals for lipids and apolipoproteins identified via the HumanCVD BeadChip.
19879940 2010 Increased levels of cell-free hemoglobin, oxidation markers, and the antioxidative heme scavenger alpha(1)-microglobulin in preeclampsia.
19636634 2009 Clinical and prognostic significance of urinary trypsin inhibitor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy.
19056867 2009 Large-scale proteomics and phosphoproteomics of urinary exosomes.
18649735 Down-regulation of matriptase by overexpression of bikunin attenuates cell invasion in prostate carcinoma cells.
18448433 2008 The transfer of heavy chains from bikunin proteins to hyaluronan requires both TSG-6 and HC2.
18226914 2008 Molecular structure and function analysis of bikunin on down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in activated neutrophils.
18046670 Urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins in patients with pure monoclonal light chain proteinuria.
17998887 2008 Insufficient production of urinary trypsin inhibitor for neutrophil elastase release after cardiac arrest.
17766242 2007 The lipocalin alpha1-microglobulin has radical scavenging activity.
17633530 [Luminescent analysis of the structure of human alpha-1-microglobulin].
17584166 2007 SAXS studies of human protein HC (alpha1-microglobulin).
17320766 2007 Up-regulation of alpha1-microglobulin by hemoglobin and reactive oxygen species in hepatoma and blood cell lines.
17207965 2007 hORFeome v3.1: a resource of human open reading frames representing over 10,000 human genes.
17146627 2007 The presence of tryptase-positive and bikunin-negative mast cells in psoriatic skin lesions.
17115277 2007 Immunological evaluation of urinary trypsin inhibitors in blood and urine: role of N- & O-linked glycoproteins.
17087727 2006 Identification of bikunin as an endogenous inhibitor of dynorphin convertase in human cerebrospinal fluid.
16916777 2006 Urinary excretion of alpha1-microglobulin and albumin in acute myocardial infarction. Correlation with plasma concentrations of troponin I and C-reactive protein.
16712791 2006 Identification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma related genes by comparison with normal liver tissues using expressed sequence tags.
16502470 2006 Human colostrum: identification of minor proteins in the aqueous phase by proteomics.
16407257 2006 Enhanced alpha1 microglobulin secretion from Hepatitis E virus ORF3-expressing human hepatoma cells is mediated by the tumor susceptibility gene 101.
16364318 2006 Cathepsin B and its interacting proteins, bikunin and TSRC1, correlate with TNF-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells OV-90.
16140784 2005 The 41-amino-acid C-terminal region of the hepatitis E virus ORF3 protein interacts with bikunin, a kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor.
15653696 2005 The TSG-6 and I alpha I interaction promotes a transesterification cleaving the protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein (PGP) cross-link.
15498571 2004 A kunitz-type protease inhibitor bikunin disrupts ligand-induced oligomerization of receptors for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and subsequently suppresses TGF-beta signalings.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15452109 2004 Human alpha-1-microglobulin is covalently bound to kynurenine-derived chromophores.
15164053 2004 DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.
15037615 2004 The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus interacts with liver-specific alpha1-microglobulin and its precursor alpha1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) and expedites their export from the hepatocyte.
14718574 2004 The human plasma proteome: a nonredundant list developed by combination of four separate sources.
14702039 2004 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
14597629 2004 Genetic down-regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by bikunin correlates with suppression of invasion and metastasis in human ovarian cancer HRA cells.
14516400 2003 Identification of bikunin isolated from human urine inhibits calcium oxalate crystal growth and its localization in the kidneys.
12817471 2003 The protease inhibitor bikunin, a novel anti-metastatic agent.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
11883904 2002 The liver-specific human alpha(1)-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) is capable of self-association.
11807786 2002 Inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic spreading by overexpression of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family chains.
11058759 2000 alpha(1)-Microglobulin: a yellow-brown lipocalin.
11036097 2000 Tissue distribution of the lipocalin alpha-1 microglobulin in the developing human fetus.
10878892 2000 [Level of placental alpha1-microglobulin in maternal serum as a marker of intrauterine fetal pathology].
10727951 2000 Structural characterization of the oligosaccharide chains of human alpha1-microglobulin from urine and amniotic fluid.
10631976 1999 Alpha1-microglobulin chromophores are located to three lysine residues semiburied in the lipocalin pocket and associated with a novel lipophilic compound.
10447938 1999 Collagen-bound alpha1-microglobulin in normal and healed tissues and its effect on immunocompetent cells.
10097787 1999 Histologic distribution and biochemical properties of alpha 1-microglobulin in human placenta.
9671439 1998 Alpha1-microglobulin is found both in blood and in most tissues.
9570066 1998 Possible role of alpha-1-microglobulin in mediating bacterial attachment to model surfaces.
9566199 1998 The crystal structure of bikunin from the inter-alpha-inhibitor complex: a serine protease inhibitor with two Kunitz domains.
9472382 1997 Bikunin and alpha 1-microglobulin in human zona pellucida and connective tissue.
9183005 1997 Prothrombin, albumin and immunoglobulin A form covalent complexes with alpha1-microglobulin in human plasma.
7682553 1993 Presence of the protein-glycosaminoglycan-protein covalent cross-link in the inter-alpha-inhibitor-related proteinase inhibitor heavy chain 2/bikunin.
7676539 1995 Characterization of uronic-acid-rich inhibitor of calcium oxalate crystallization isolated from rat urine.
7535251 1995 Formation of the alpha 1-microglobulin chromophore in mammalian and insect cells: a novel post-translational mechanism?
7533162 1995 alpha 1-Microglobulin destroys the proteinase inhibitory activity of alpha 1-inhibitor-3 by complex formation.
7528952 1994 Albuminuria as an indicator of rejection in bladder-drained pancreas allografts.
7513643 1994 Chondroitin sulphate covalently cross-links the three polypeptide chains of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor.
7506257 1994 Location of a novel type of interpolypeptide chain linkage in the human protein HC-IgA complex (HC-IgA) and identification of a heterogeneous chromophore associated with the complex.
6198962 1984 The complete amino acid sequence of human complex-forming glycoprotein heterogeneous in charge (protein HC) from one individual.
6196366 1983 Isolation of human complex-forming glycoprotein, heterogeneous in charge (protein HC), and its IgA complex from plasma. Physiochemical and immunochemical properties, normal plasma concentration.
6171497 1981 Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors derived by limited proteolysis of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, V. Attachments of carbohydrates in the human urinary trypsin inhibitor isolated by affinity chromatography.
6164372 1981 Complete amino acid sequence of human alpha 1-microglobulin.
3890890 1985 The reactive site of human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor is in the amino-terminal half of the protein.
3663330 1987 cDNA cloning of human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor discloses three different proteins.
2482577 [Immunoenzyme analysis of placenta-specific alpha 1-microglobulin in the serum of blood donors].
2472935 1989 The gene coding for proteins HC and HI-30 of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor maps to 9q22.3----q33.
2465147 1989 Human plasma inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor is encoded by four genes on three chromosomes.
2430261 1986 The mRNA for a proteinase inhibitor related to the HI-30 domain of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor also encodes alpha-1-microglobulin (protein HC).
2428011 1986 Sequence of a full length cDNA coding for human protein HC (alpha 1 microglobulin).
2419908 1986 Human protein HC and its IgA complex are inhibitors of neutrophil chemotaxis.
2413856 1985 Human inter-alpha-trypsin-inhibitor: characterization and partial nucleotide sequencing of a light chain-encoding cDNA.
2408638 1985 Human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor: localization of the Kunitz-type domains in the N-terminal part of the molecule and their release by a trypsin-like proteinase.
1898736 1991 Chondroitin 4-sulfate covalently cross-links the chains of the human blood protein pre-alpha-inhibitor.
1714898 1991 The protein HC chromophore is linked to the cysteine residue at position 34 of the polypeptide chain by a reduction-resistant bond and causes the charge heterogeneity of protein HC.
1708673 1990 Structure of the human alpha 1-microglobulin-bikunin gene.
1700638 1990 [Immunoenzyme analysis of placenta-specific alpha(1)-microglobulin in the blood serum in normal and pathological pregnancy].
1696200 1990 Structural analysis of the human inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light-chain gene.
1694784 1990 Location and characterization of the three carbohydrate prosthetic groups of human protein HC.
1469060 1992 Cancer-related urinary proteinase inhibitor, EDC1: a new method for its isolation and evidence for multiple forms.
1385302 1992 Homologous chromosomal locations of the four genes for inter-alpha-inhibitor and pre-alpha-inhibitor family in human and mouse: assignment of the ancestral gene for the lipocalin superfamily.
72071 1977 Human alpha1-microglobulin. Purification procedure, chemical and physiochemical properties.