Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 57
PubMed Score 471.41
PubTator Score 241.74

Knowledge Summary


No data available




Accession O00253 O15459 Q2TBD9
Symbols ART


PANTHER Protein Class (1)


2IQV   1HYK   1MR0  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (41)

26152765 CSF AgRP was not different in lean vs. overweight/obese subjects; however, plasma AgRP was higher in lean subjects.
25446108 human agouti-related protein has a role in enhancing expression and stability of human melanocortin-4 receptor
25013995 Elevations in AgRP also favor the diagnosis of ectopic ACTH syndrome, suggesting AgRP should be further evaluated as a potential neuroendocrine tumor marker.
24564533 AGRP SNP (rs1338993) was not associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients.
23900445 Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3 and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans.
23118421 Despite peripheral hyperleptinemia, positive energy balance is achieved during pregnancy by a relative decrease in central leptin concentrations and resistance to leptin's effects on target neuropeptides that regulate energy balance.
22492775 AgRP and NPY are correlated with body weight changes, rather than the presence of type 2 diabetes, whereas changes in alphaMSH immunoreactivity are related to the presence of type 2 diabetes, indicating separate hypothalamic mechanisms.
22477065 Data suggest that prolonged steady-state exercise/physical activity at moderate intensity elicits substantial increases in blood lactate and cortisol concentrations without a significant change in AgRP; study was pilot project involving men.
21531082 Cognitive flexibility plays an important role in anorexia nervosa and may be modulated by abnormal levels of the appetite-regulating peptide AGRP.
20468064 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20404050 AgRP may provide an important signal in the immune environment and the lymphocyte may be considered as an extra-hypothalamic source of plasma AgRP following exercise stress
20164781 Only the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver presented a positive correlation between the saturated fatty acids intake and the orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and agouti related protein, and carbohydrate with NPY
19942238 Agouti-related protein is neatively correlated with nonalcolic fatty liver disease in obese adolescents.
19770186 This review defines how peripheral signals (particularly leptin, insulin and glucose) converge on a molecular level in proopiomelanocortin (POMC)- and agouti-related protein (AgRP)-expressing arcuate nucleus neurons to control energy homeostasis.
19602223 This study presents an association of rare allele of AGRP polymorphism in heterozygous state with increased body mass index
19602223 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
19285986 two adjacent enhancers inside the first intron of the neighboring (1.4 kb downstream) ATPase gene (ATP6V0D1) modulate the human AgRP promoter with profound spatiotemporal variation
19077438 Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)
19058789 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17197106 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
17180153 a rare mutation, +79G>A, was identified in the AGRP minimal promoter; the +79G>A mutation could predispose to body weight gain
17041250 in addition to its inverse agonistic activities, Agrp exhibits agonistic properties on the endocytosis pathway of melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors
16904835 Plasma Agouti-related protein (AGRP)elevation may be related to energy homeostasis disturbance in anorexia nervosa, and in addition to leptin, peripheral AGRP levels could be used as a nutritional marker in AN patients.
16820227 analysis of molecular basis of melanocortin-4 receptor for AGRP inverse agonism
16568137 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16320160 AgRP may have a novel inhibitory paracrine role in the human adrenal gland
16314751 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms found in anorexia nervosa.
16280444 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
16130030 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15978665 the C-terminus of AgRP can participate in the insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, through the modulation of calcium release
15597110 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15546902 Serum levels could serve as useful peripheral markers of changes in energy homeostasis.
15121772 Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the AGRP promotor showed opposite effects on promotor activity.
15054840 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15054840 Ala67Thr polymorphism in the Agouti-related peptide gene is associated with inherited leanness in humans
12213871 the c.199G-->A polymorphism in hAGRP could play a role in the development of human obesity in an age-dependent fashion
11747427 NMR structural studies show that the loop in the first 16 residues of the C-terminal domain of AGRP confers distinct selectivity for melanocortin receptors MC3R and MC4R.
11602360 A polymorphism, 199G>A, resulted in substitution of the amino acid at position 67 from alanine to threonine.
11554767 The high expressing C/C genotype of AGRP was significantly associated with high BMI and type 2 diabetes in Africans.
11487744 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
11326303 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)

AA Sequence


Text Mined References (61)

PMID Year Title
26152765 2015 Proopiomelanocortin, agouti-related protein, and leptin in human cerebrospinal fluid: correlations with body weight and adiposity.
25446108 2015 Co-expression of human agouti-related protein enhances expression and stability of human melanocortin-4 receptor.
25013995 2014 Clinical utility of plasma POMC and AgRP measurements in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
24564533 2014 Investigation of melanocortin system gene variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
23900445 2014 Genetic association analysis of 30 genes related to obesity in a European American population.
23376485 2013 Proteomic analysis of podocyte exosome-enriched fraction from normal human urine.
23118421 2013 Cerebrospinal fluid levels of leptin, proopiomelanocortin, and agouti-related protein in human pregnancy: evidence for leptin resistance.
22492775 2012 AgRP and NPY expression in the human hypothalamic infundibular nucleus correlate with body mass index, whereas changes in ?MSH are related to type 2 diabetes.
22477065 2012 Effects of prolonged exercise on agouti-related protein: a pilot study.
21531082 2011 Cognitive flexibility and Agouti-related protein in adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa.
20468064 2010 Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa.
20404050 2010 Acute circuit-resistance exercise increases expression of lymphocyte agouti-related protein in young women.
20164781 2010 The role of nutritional profile in the orexigenic neuropeptide secretion in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents.
19942238 2010 Negative correlation between neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein concentration and adiponectinemia in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease obese adolescents submitted to a long-term interdisciplinary therapy.
19770186 2009 Hormone and glucose signalling in POMC and AgRP neurons.
19602223 2009 Association between a rare SNP in the second intron of human Agouti related protein gene and increased BMI.
19285986 2009 Control elements in the neighboring ATPase gene influence spatiotemporal expression of the human agouti-related protein.
19077438 2009 Analysis of 30 genes (355 SNPS) related to energy homeostasis for association with adiposity in European-American and Yup'ik Eskimo populations.
19058789 2009 A common variant in DRD3 receptor is associated with autism spectrum disorder.
17197106 2007 Family trios analysis of common polymorphisms in the obestatin/ghrelin, BDNF and AGRP genes in patients with Anorexia nervosa: association with subtype, body-mass index, severity and age of onset.
17185225 2006 Structural and molecular evolutionary analysis of Agouti and Agouti-related proteins.
17180153 2007 A rare mutation in AgRP, +79G>A, affects promoter activity.
17041250 2006 The natural inverse agonist agouti-related protein induces arrestin-mediated endocytosis of melanocortin-3 and -4 receptors.
16904835 2006 Plasma agouti-related protein levels in women with anorexia nervosa.
16820227 2006 Molecular basis of melanocortin-4 receptor for AGRP inverse agonism.
16568137 2006 Polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness in Dutch adults.
16384863 2006 Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83-132: interaction between AGRP83-132 and melanocortin receptors cannot be influenced by syndecan-3.
16320160 2005 Agouti related protein (AgRP) is upregulated in Cushing's syndrome.
16314751 2005 Mutation analysis of the agouti related protein promoter region and the melanocortin-3 receptor in anorexia nervosa patients.
16280444 2005 Two ethnic-specific polymorphisms in the human Agouti-related protein gene are associated with macronutrient intake.
16130030 2006 Agouti-related protein promoter variant associated with leanness and decreased risk for diabetes in West Africans.
15978665 2005 C-terminal part of AgRP stimulates insulin secretion through calcium release in pancreatic beta Rin5mf cells.
15927146 2005 Functional analysis of the Ala67Thr polymorphism in agouti related protein associated with anorexia nervosa and leanness.
15597110 2005 Melanocortin-4 receptor gene and physical activity in the Québec Family Study.
15546902 2005 Circulating melanin-concentrating hormone, agouti-related protein, and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone levels in relation to body composition: alterations in response to food deprivation and recombinant human leptin administration.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15121772 2004 Functional dimorphism of two hAgRP promoter SNPs in linkage disequilibrium.
15054840 2004 Ala67Thr polymorphism in the Agouti-related peptide gene is associated with inherited leanness in humans.
12815165 2003 Molecular determination of agouti-related protein binding to human melanocortin-4 receptor.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
12213871 2002 A polymorphism in the human agouti-related protein is associated with late-onset obesity.
12153462 2002 Plasma agouti-related protein level: a possible correlation with fasted and fed states in humans and rats.
12056887 2002 Design, pharmacology, and NMR structure of a minimized cystine knot with agouti-related protein activity.
11747427 2001 High-resolution NMR structure of the chemically-synthesized melanocortin receptor binding domain AGRP(87-132) of the agouti-related protein.
11602360 2001 The gene structure and minimal promoter of the human agouti related protein.
11554767 2001 A role for the Agouti-Related Protein promoter in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
11487744 2001 Mutational analysis of melanocortin-4 receptor, agouti-related protein, and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone genes in severely obese children.
11344185 2001 Plasma levels of agouti-related protein are increased in obese men.
11326303 2001 Association between an agouti-related protein gene polymorphism and anorexia nervosa.
11196643 2001 A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.
11145747 2001 AgRP(83-132) acts as an inverse agonist on the human-melanocortin-4 receptor.
10371151 1999 NMR structure of a minimized human agouti related protein prepared by total chemical synthesis.
10366820 1999 The role of agouti-related protein in regulating body weight.
10318826 1999 Contribution of melanocortin receptor exoloops to Agouti-related protein binding.
9893984 1999 Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors.
9892020 1999 Characterization of Agouti-related protein binding to melanocortin receptors.
9751529 1998 A C-terminal fragment of Agouti-related protein increases feeding and antagonizes the effect of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in vivo.
9724530 1998 Determination of disulfide structure in agouti-related protein (AGRP) by stepwise reduction and alkylation.
9354787 1997 Overexpression of Agrt leads to obesity in transgenic mice.
9311920 1997 Antagonism of central melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein.
9119224 1997 Hypothalamic expression of ART, a novel gene related to agouti, is up-regulated in obese and diabetic mutant mice.