Property Summary

NCBI Gene PubMed Count 92
PubMed Score 125.75
PubTator Score 246.26

Knowledge Summary

Patent

No data available

Expression

  Differential Expression (20)

Disease log2 FC p
Barrett's esophagus 4.400 2.7e-02
esophageal adenocarcinoma 4.900 1.8e-02
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma liver m... 4.298 2.8e-03
intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma (... 3.700 3.8e-05
intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma... 3.500 1.7e-04
intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm ... 3.200 1.5e-02
colon cancer -1.300 2.0e-02
lung cancer -4.100 6.2e-07
active Crohn's disease 1.504 2.6e-03
active ulcerative colitis 1.207 3.5e-02
pancreatic cancer 4.100 1.6e-02
interstitial cystitis -3.300 3.0e-03
lung adenocarcinoma 1.902 1.4e-03
nasopharyngeal carcinoma -1.900 2.1e-03
lung carcinoma -2.400 2.3e-11
breast carcinoma 1.200 2.4e-04
spina bifida -1.827 3.7e-02
invasive ductal carcinoma 5.300 1.5e-03
pituitary cancer -3.700 4.1e-04
psoriasis -1.400 3.0e-26

Synonym

Accession O95994 AG-2
Symbols AG2
GOB-4
HAG-2
XAG-2
PDIA17
HEL-S-116

Gene

PANTHER Protein Class (2)

PDB

2LNS   2LNT  

  Ortholog (1)

Species Source Disease
Chimp OMA EggNOG

Gene RIF (73)

PMID Text
26876500 These data together identify the single cysteine of AGR2 as an oxidant responsive moiety that regulates its propensity for oxidation and its monomeric-dimeric state.
26445321 Nearly all NSCLC tumors show AGR2 expression. Lung cancer expression of AGR2 has prognostic value for younger patients.
26169982 Results show that AGR2 is O-glycosylated upon secretion from human and rat cell lines, and that this form of the protein is released from healthy cells and not as a result of cell lysis.
26079208 Our findings, for the first time, describe AGR2 as an important regulator in chemical hypoxia-induced doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells
25956506 The mechanism linking the IGF-1/insulin signal and AGR2 promoter activation is important.
25937245 analysis of molecular characteristics, function, and regulation of AGR2 in cancer[review]
25875093 Data show the potential usability of anterior gradient homolog 3 (AGR3) and anterior gradient homolog 2 (AGR2) as biomarkers for blood-based early detection of breast cancer.
25871396 AGR2 was higher in HNSCC than in normal oral mucosa. High levels were associated with the T category, pathological grade and lymphatic metastasis. AGR2 expression increased in recurring HNSCC after radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
25666661 Relying on available data and in silico analyses, study shows that AGR2 and AGR3 proteins are co-expressed or uncoupled in context-dependent manners in diverse carcinomas and healthy tissues.
25663596 The prognostic impact of AGR2 expression could be related to treatment outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and/or its metastasis-promoting effects.
25418581 Anterior gradient 2 downregulation in a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a prognostic factor indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
25367337 Knockdown of anterior gradient 2 expression extenuates tumor-associated phenotypes of SNU-478 ampulla of Vater cancer cells.
25237833 AGR2 splice variant transcripts are potential diagnostic biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of PCa using urine exosomes.
25186196 Expression of anterior gradient 2 is decreased with the progression of human biliary tract cancer.
25111734 AGR2 has both intracellular and extracellular effects in the intestine
25100862 Data define the importance of AGR2 in breast cancer cell growth and highlight a mechanism where changes in FOXA1 activity obviate the need for ER in the regulation of this gene.
24976026 AGR2 is a novel marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
24960290 AGR2-mediated lung adenocarcinoma metastasis novel mechanism network through repression with interferon coupling cytoskeleton to steroid metabolism-dependent humoral immune response.
24920423 Results indicate that DNA methylation within the AGR2 promoter modulates more aggressive cancer cell phenotypes.
24794000 AGR2 is frequently lost in colorectal carcinomas and might be a novel independent prognostic factor for overall patient survival.
24717913 anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) was overexpressed in human Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues, particularly in cervical lymph node metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
24710632 Data demonstrates that AGR2 protein has a more dominant action on proteome remodelling rather than transcriptome effects and highlight a dominant effect on p53 pathway attenuation.
24587138 These data suggest that AGR-2 influence prostate cancer metastasis by regulation of cellular adhesion and apoptosis.
24490732 Increased expression of the AGR2 and ERp57 is associated with cancer. [review]
24251762 On the basis of an initial cohort of 37 subjects, urinary AGR2/PSA concentration ratios showed a significant difference (P = 0.026) between noncancer and cancer
24177142 Data indicate that aberrantly elevated anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) expression predicts poor patient outcome.
23834814 overexpression of AGR2 showed a positive correlation with oral tumor metastasis.
23348903 Prostate cancer biomarkers, AGR2 and CD10, can be used in combination to stratify prostate cancer patients for clinical outcome.
23220234 this study showed that dimerization of AGR2 attenuates ER stress induced cell death and its dimerization is required for the interaction with BiP/GRP78.
22945652 core role for AGR2 is in regulating the endoplasmic reticulum capacity to adapt
22945649 We show that the downregulation of AGR2 in human pancreatic cancer cells is SMAD4 dependent.
22911164 Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) is a blood-based biomarker elevated in metastatic prostate cancer associated with the neuroendocrine phenotype
22828706 High expression levels of AGR2 exist in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and patient livers.
22752467 AGR2 expression identifies highly aggressive Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma with a compromised prognosis
22748473 Anterior gradient homolog 2 and MUC5AC are useful positive markers of adenocarcinoma.
22659167 In vitro, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 decreased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 expression decreased primary tumor growth as well as regional and distant metastasis.
22605983 High AGR2/LGR5 was associated with poor progression-free survival by multivariate analysis.
22521076 Anterior gradient 2 overexpression affects the whole spectrum of the metaplastic/neo-plastic lesions involved in Barrett carcinogenesis.
22467239 AGR2 depletion resulted in accumulation of cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase and induction of cellular senescence in all three PCa cell lines
22430137 Positive serum AGR2 expression in patients with lung adenocarcinoma was significantly associated with the incidence of recurrence after surgery and with a poor prognosis for overall survival
22231555 containes epitopes identified a tumor-associated antigens against colorectal cancer
22184114 AGR2 gene function requires a unique endoplasmic reticulum localization motif.
22147918 investigation of expression of AGR2, S100P, and S100A4 at cellular level within endometrium of normal fertile women across menstrual cycle and comparison with expression in eutopic and peritoneal ectopic endometrial tissue in endometriosis
22072305 AGR2, encoding a 19-kDa secreted protein that might be found in urine, is detected in tissue digestion media of tumor specimens and culture media of AGR2-secreting prostate cancer cell lines.
22025610 AGR2 expression is controlled by the unfolded protein response and is in turn is involved in the maintenance of ER homeostasis.
21948970 AGR2 is a novel surface antigen that promotes the dissemination of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of cathepsins B and D.
21768879 AGR2 protein expression may support the histologic subtyping of nonsmall-cell lung cancer and be of clinical value in differentiating lung AdC from SCC.
21454516 AGR2 induction of AREG is mediated by activation of the Hippo signaling pathway co-activator, YAP1.
21281432 Our study shows that the differential expression of AGR2 is a phenotypic feature of the cholangiocytes covering different segments of the biliary tree.
21200134 AGR2 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of mucinous ovarian cancer.
21144054 Despite an increase in AGR2 expression in prostate cancer compared to non-malignant cells, relatively lower levels of AGR2 are highly predictive of disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy.
20945500 AGR2 enhances the invasion phenotype of prostate cancer cells while at the same time attenuating cell-cycle progression.
20888340 The Reptin docking site was mapped to a divergent octapeptide loop in the AGR2 superfamily between amino acids 104 and 111. Mutations at codon Y104 or F111 in full-length AGR2 destabilized the binding of Reptin.
20877624 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
20550709 elevation of AGR2 levels in pancreatic juice occurs in early pancreatic cancer progression and could be further investigated as a potential candidate juice biomarker for early detection of pancreatic cancer.
20525379 High AGR2 is associated with breast neoplasms.
20525245 High serum AGR2 is associated with ovarian cancer.
20403997 Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)
20299546 aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands might contribute to tumor progression by inhibiting p53 regulation via the increased expression of the metastasis marker AGR2
20048076 our results reveal an EBP1-Foxa-AGR2 signaling circuit with functional significance in metastatic prostate cancer.
19834055 Data suggest that the presence of anterior gradient 2 protein in primary tumors is a possible prognostic indicator of poor patient outcome in breast cancer.
19609859 A prognostic value of AGR2 seems unlikely.
18973922 Anterior gradient-2 is overexpressed in the majority of fibrolamellar carcinomas but is only rarely overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas.
18829536 AGR2 is expressed and secreted during pancreatic cancer development and plays an important role in cancer cell growth and survival.
18801625 qRT-PCR assay targeted to plakophilin 3 and anterior gradient-2 mRNAs might be helpful to detect circulating tumor cells in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
17694278 Elevated levels of AGR2 are associated with the metastatic potential of breast cancer
17457305 increased AGR2 expression is a valuable prognostic factor to predict the clinical outcome of the prostate cancer patients.
16551856 A prognostic effect of AGR2 for overall survival could be shown, which became independently significant for the group of nodal-negative tumors.
16222343 represents an interesting new avenue into the etiopathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.
16222343 Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)
15935701 specific induction of Hag2 and Hag3 during hormone-induced breast carcinomas further support developmental specificity for the PDI/ERp family members
15834940 AGR2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target and/or molecular marker for prostate cancer.
12592373 hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan.

AA Sequence

MEKIPVSAFLLLVALSYTLARDTTVKPGAKKDTKDSRPKLPQTLSRGWGDQLIWTQTYEEALYKSKTSNK      1 - 70
PLMIIHHLDECPHSQALKKVFAENKEIQKLAEQFVLLNLVYETTDKHLSPDGQYVPRIMFVDPSLTVRAD     71 - 140
ITGRYSNRLYAYEPADTALLLDNMKKALKLLKTEL                                       141 - 175
//

Text Mined References (93)

PMID Year Title
26876500 2016 Mass spectrometry analysis of the oxidation states of the pro-oncogenic protein anterior gradient-2 reveals covalent dimerization via an intermolecular disulphide bond.
26445321 2015 High expression of AGR2 in lung cancer is predictive of poor survival.
26169982 2015 The metastasis-inducing protein AGR2 is O-glycosylated upon secretion from mammary epithelial cells.
26079208 2015 Anterior gradient 2 is a binding stabilizer of hypoxia inducible factor-1? that enhances CoCl2 -induced doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells.
25956506 2015 Induction of anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) plays a key role in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration.
25937245 2015 Mechanisms of anterior gradient-2 regulation and function in cancer.
25875093 2015 AGR3 in breast cancer: prognostic impact and suitable serum-based biomarker for early cancer detection.
25871396 2015 Anterior gradient protein 2 expression in high grade head and neck squamous cell carcinoma correlated with cancer stem cell and epithelial mesenchymal transition.
25666661 The role of AGR2 and AGR3 in cancer: similar but not identical.
25666625 2015 Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling requires a specific endoplasmic reticulum thioredoxin for the post-translational control of receptor presentation to the cell surface.
25663596 2015 Anterior Gradient 2 is a Poor Outcome Indicator in Luminal Breast Cancer.
25418581 2015 Anterior gradient 2 downregulation in a subset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a prognostic factor indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
25416956 2014 A proteome-scale map of the human interactome network.
25367337 2014 Knockdown of anterior gradient 2 expression extenuates tumor-associated phenotypes of SNU-478 ampulla of Vater cancer cells.
25237833 2014 Splice variant transcripts of the anterior gradient 2 gene as a marker of prostate cancer.
25186196 2014 Expression of anterior gradient 2 is decreased with the progression of human biliary tract cancer.
25111734 2014 AGR2, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, is secreted into the gastrointestinal mucus.
25100862 2014 Delineation of a FOXA1/ER?/AGR2 regulatory loop that is dysregulated in endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer.
24976026 2014 Anterior gradient protein 2 promotes survival, migration and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells.
24960290 2014 AGR2-mediated lung adenocarcinoma metastasis novel mechanism network through repression with interferon coupling cytoskeleton to steroid metabolism-dependent humoral immune response.
24920423 2014 Aberrant hypomethylation-mediated AGR2 overexpression induces an aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer cells.
24794000 2014 Loss of anterior gradient-2 expression is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal carcinomas.
24717913 2014 N,N'-dinitrosopiperazine-mediated AGR2 is involved in metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
24710632 2014 Engineering a synthetic cell panel to identify signalling components reprogrammed by the cell growth regulator anterior gradient-2.
24587138 2014 Anterior gradient protein-2 is a regulator of cellular adhesion in prostate cancer.
24490732 2013 AGR2, ERp57/GRP58, and some other human protein disulfide isomerases.
24251762 2014 A highly sensitive targeted mass spectrometric assay for quantification of AGR2 protein in human urine and serum.
24177142 2014 Anterior gradient 2 and mucin 4 expression mirrors tumor cell differentiation in pancreatic adenocarcinomas, but aberrant anterior gradient 2 expression predicts worse patient outcome in poorly differentiated tumors.
23834814 2013 Anterior gradient 2: a novel sensitive tumor marker for metastatic oral cancer.
23648065 2013 Genome-wide association study of chemotherapeutic agent-induced severe neutropenia/leucopenia for patients in Biobank Japan.
23386860 2013 Exploring genome-wide - dietary heme iron intake interactions and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
23382691 2013 Loci associated with N-glycosylation of human immunoglobulin G show pleiotropy with autoimmune diseases and haematological cancers.
23348903 2013 Prostate cancer cell phenotypes based on AGR2 and CD10 expression.
23274113 2013 Metastasis-promoting anterior gradient 2 protein has a dimeric thioredoxin fold structure and a role in cell adhesion.
23220234 2013 Dimerization of pro-oncogenic protein Anterior Gradient 2 is required for the interaction with BiP/GRP78.
22945652 2013 Emerging roles for the pro-oncogenic anterior gradient-2 in cancer development.
22945649 2013 AGR2 is a SMAD4-suppressible gene that modulates MUC1 levels and promotes the initiation and progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
22911164 2013 Anterior gradient 2 (AGR2): blood-based biomarker elevated in metastatic prostate cancer associated with the neuroendocrine phenotype.
22828706 2012 Proteomic study explores AGR2 as pro-metastatic protein in HCC.
22752467 2012 Anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
22748473 2012 Immunohistochemical panel for distinguishing esophageal adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma: a combination of p63, cytokeratin 5/6, MUC5AC, and anterior gradient homolog 2 allows optimal subtyping.
22659167 2012 CD147 and AGR2 expression promote cellular proliferation and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
22605983 2012 Evaluation of the adenocarcinoma-associated gene AGR2 and the intestinal stem cell marker LGR5 as biomarkers in colorectal cancer.
22521076 2012 Anterior gradient 2 profiling in Barrett columnar epithelia and adenocarcinoma.
22467239 2012 Knockdown of AGR2 induces cellular senescence in prostate cancer cells.
22430137 Serum AGR2 as an early diagnostic and postoperative prognostic biomarker of human lung adenocarcinoma.
22231555 2012 Identification of novel HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes from anterior gradient-2 as a tumor-associated antigen against colorectal cancer.
22184114 2012 AGR2 gene function requires a unique endoplasmic reticulum localization motif.
22147918 2012 Aberrant expression of metastasis-inducing proteins in ectopic and matched eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis: implications for the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
22072305 2012 Development of an ELISA to detect the secreted prostate cancer biomarker AGR2 in voided urine.
22025610 2011 Role of pro-oncogenic protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family member anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) in the control of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis.
21948970 2011 AGR2 is a novel surface antigen that promotes the dissemination of pancreatic cancer cells through regulation of cathepsins B and D.
21768879 2012 Anterior gradient 2 overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma.
21454516 2011 The human adenocarcinoma-associated gene, AGR2, induces expression of amphiregulin through Hippo pathway co-activator YAP1 activation.
21281432 2011 Differential expression of the anterior gradient protein-2 is a conserved feature during morphogenesis and carcinogenesis of the biliary tree.
21200134 2011 AGR2, a mucinous ovarian cancer marker, promotes cell proliferation and migration.
21144054 2010 Differential expression of anterior gradient gene AGR2 in prostate cancer.
20945500 2011 The anterior gradient 2 (AGR2) gene is overexpressed in prostate cancer and may be useful as a urine sediment marker for prostate cancer detection.
20888340 2010 A divergent substrate-binding loop within the pro-oncogenic protein anterior gradient-2 forms a docking site for Reptin.
20877624 2010 Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression.
20550709 2010 Elevated level of anterior gradient-2 in pancreatic juice from patients with pre-malignant pancreatic neoplasia.
20525379 2010 Anterior gradient-2 plays a critical role in breast cancer cell growth and survival by modulating cyclin D1, estrogen receptor-alpha and survivin.
20525245 2010 Evaluation of midkine and anterior gradient 2 in a multimarker panel for the detection of ovarian cancer.
20403997 2010 Genetic variation in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase modifies the chemopreventive activity of statins for colorectal cancer.
20299546 2010 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin counteracts the p53 response to a genotoxicant by upregulating expression of the metastasis marker agr2 in the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2.
20048076 2010 ErbB3 binding protein 1 represses metastasis-promoting gene anterior gradient protein 2 in prostate cancer.
19834055 2009 The metastasis-associated anterior gradient 2 protein is correlated with poor survival of breast cancer patients.
19609859 2009 Prognostic significance of AGR2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
19359471 2009 The protein disulfide isomerase AGR2 is essential for production of intestinal mucus.
18973922 2009 Anterior gradient-2 is overexpressed by fibrolamellar carcinomas.
18829536 2008 Anterior gradient 2 is expressed and secreted during the development of pancreatic cancer and promotes cancer cell survival.
18801625 2008 Bioinformatics approach to mRNA markers discovery for detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
18199544 2008 The adenocarcinoma-associated antigen, AGR2, promotes tumor growth, cell migration, and cellular transformation.
18029348 2008 Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.
17694278 2007 Physiological stress induces the metastasis marker AGR2 in breast cancer cells.
17457305 2007 Increased expression of anterior gradient-2 is significantly associated with poor survival of prostate cancer patients.
16713569 2006 A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.
16551856 2006 Prognostic relevance of AGR2 expression in breast cancer.
16222343 2006 Evaluation of AGR2 and AGR3 as candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease.
16189514 2005 Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.
16169070 2005 A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.
15935701 2005 Diversity of the protein disulfide isomerase family: identification of breast tumor induced Hag2 and Hag3 as novel members of the protein family.
15834940 2005 AGR2, an androgen-inducible secretory protein overexpressed in prostate cancer.
15489334 2004 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
15340161 2004 Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.
12975309 2003 The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.
12853948 2003 The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.
12690205 2003 Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.
12592373 2003 hAG-2 and hAG-3, human homologues of genes involved in differentiation, are associated with oestrogen receptor-positive breast tumours and interact with metastasis gene C4.4a and dystroglycan.
12477932 2002 Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.
10965104 2000 Localization of the human anterior gradient-2 gene (AGR2) to chromosome band 7p21.3 by radiation hybrid mapping and fluorescencein situ hybridisation.
9790916 1998 hAG-2, the human homologue of the Xenopus laevis cement gland gene XAG-2, is coexpressed with estrogen receptor in breast cancer cell lines.
8125298 1994 Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.