Otopalatodigital syndrome 1
X-linked dominant multiple congenital anomalies disease mainly characterized by a generalized skeletal dysplasia, mild mental retardation, hearing loss, cleft palate, and typical facial anomalies. OPD1 belongs to a group of X-linked skeletal dysplasias known as oto-palato-digital syndrome spectrum disorders that also include OPD2, Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS), and frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Remodeling of the cytoskeleton is central to the modulation of cell shape and migration. FLNA is a widely expressed protein that regulates re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton by interacting with integrins, transmembrane receptor complexes and second messengers. Males with OPD1 have cleft palate, malformations of the ossicles causing deafness and milder bone and limb defects than those associated with OPD2. Obligate female carriers of mutations causing both OPD1 and OPD2 have variable (often milder) expression of a similar phenotypic spectrum.
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